The history of straws and the types of straws available

Before the plastic straws were born, many different types of straws were used to drink water and wirelessly out.

Firstly, the type of straws made from barley stems, first the rice stalks will be sorted and checked manually, but the unsatisfactory stems will be removed, the segments can be used. will be cut and cleaned the outer shell, then bundled into each bundle and taken to restaurants to use as straws for customers. One bad thing about this straw is that they are easy to decompose and have a characteristic grassy smell that affects the taste of the drink, moreover, when they decompose, they create a layer of suspended water in the water that looks very disjointed. America.

Straws made from glass.

Realizing the shortcomings of the straw made from barley stems, an inventor named Marvin Stone came up with a way to take the paper around a pencil and use the glue to stick the paper, so the straw made from paper born. Stone then registered this copyright and gradually took over the market of straws from barley stems. According to an article published in 1889 in Lafeyette Advertiser, Stone’s own factory produced about 2 million straws a day, a terrible number but in fact still did not meet the demand of Americans. at that moment.

However, the form of straws made from paper will still decompose in the water, so until the 60s of the last century, when plastic forms came to the throne, the replacement from paper to plastic was inevitable, with a series of advantages such as more durable, cheaper, no decomposition in water, color mixing or transparency are all … And so the world is saying goodbye to straws from paper and welcomes plastic straws.

Straws made from candy.

In the period since then, especially in the early years of the 21st century, due to the negative reports of blameless plastic waste, manufacturers have come up with several different types of straws to find ways. limit the use of plastic straws. It is possible to list a series of types such as straws made from steel, stainless steel, pipes made from … cold stones, tubes made from bamboo body of Brush with bamboo with the price of $ 20 for 12 straws, straws made from Strawsome glassware, like Starbucks, has the use of straws made from cakes like cookies for its Frappuccinos product. Both types of plastic straws, but synthesized from corn for easier recycling …

Straws made from stone.

All these types of straws cannot completely replace straws made of plastic, because in terms of cost, they are still too high. And what’s more, what helps people reduce the use of plastic is consciousness, not the transition from one straw to the other.

Cover the history of the headscarf

For most of the Western world today, the phrase “headscarf” always reminds women, especially Muslim women, to embrace towels for religious reasons. But covering the head with a cloth is actually beyond the scope of religion, culture and geography.

“Veiled, Unveiled: The Headscarf” Exhibition (roughly translated: “Che, Cover:” Headscarf “) at the Weltmuseum (World Museum) in Vienna, Austria, has brought a variety of looks to this outfit. The exhibition extends from October 18, 2018 to February 26, 2019, including photographs, paintings, videos and headscarf designs from around the world.

Exhibition of headscarves at the Weltmuseum, Austria.

Axel Steinmann, curator of the exhibition, said a series of social-political events last October sparked the exhibition: an advertising of the pharmaceutical industry with a woman wearing a headscarf; the appearance of human emoticons wearing hijab hijacks on social networks proposed by a 15-year-old girl; and decided to grant citizenship to the robot of Sophia of Saudi Arabia and this robot is not a headscarf like the female citizens here.

Steinmann emphasized that, throughout the length of history in the East and the West, the headscarves were influenced by political and moral factors. According to him, “The purpose of the exhibition is to recreate the changes that the hijab has gone through and the changes have been forgotten, removed or simply unknown.”

The photos at the show show all, from traditional Christian veil to exquisite high-end towel designs or symbolic cloths. And while a drawing shows a young, round-eyed girl wearing a stylish summer suit with a half-tied headscarf that won the prize at a fashion design competition, a sketch another from Tehran described a woman with a full-body scarf, her face completely hidden, only showing her small ankle in high heels. The overlap and contrast appear throughout the exhibition.

Since the 1950s, the headscarves have become a fashion icon.

Today, headscarves are often the focus of debates in the West, focusing on the headscarfs of Muslim women. The exhibition does not shy away from contemporary controversy about the head cover of Muslims, and points out that “some young Muslim girls and women are forced to cover up themselves” in public. The exhibition also acknowledges the fact that, in general, the headscarves “often represent the imposition of a man’s command on a woman’s body.” However, Steinmann emphasized, it is impossible to see only the headscarf as a religious expression that women depend on men.

By placing these images next to images showing the headscarves are symbols of piousness in Christianity, the liberation of women or even the sophistication, the “Che and Vein” exhibition shows The headscarf is not a particular domain of a religion, a culture or a worldview.

Human head cover has been an integral part of monotheistic religions originating in Abraham such as Jewish, Christian and Muslim – and even the origin of the headscarves can be traced back to the text. Mesopotamia was ancient thousands of years before there was religion.

Spirit of materialism – Julie, portrait of a lady.

In Christianity, veil becomes a symbol of honor, humility and virginity. The apostle Paul asked the women to cover their faces when they talked to God. Head cover was once considered a privilege of married women and nuns. At the end of the Middle Ages, a number of European cities passed laws regulating how women should cover their heads and necks.

In the early 1920s, the Pope condemned women who wore “indecent” when dancing. During the Austrian-German Republic and after the Nazi occupation of Austria, Dirndl’s headscarf and spread skirt were indicative of the loyalty of women to their homeland.

By the 1950s, print headscarves became a fashion accessory that symbolized elegance, sophistication and liberation. “Humble fashion” is the name of a fashion trend to reveal less skin; it has grown into a multi-billion dollar business without depending on any particular religion.

Viennese Chic, 2018.

The exhibition also displays the history of men’s headscarves. According to Steinmann: “Men’s headwear (turban, yarmulkes, etc.) is also regulated by historical and cultural-religious aspects combined with dress codes.”

Like women, religion sometimes requires men to cover their heads before God, as the Jewish Talmud mentions. Men can also wrap their heads like a fashion style. The tendency for Turban men to wrap towels in 18th-century portraits is considered “a cross-cultural disguise to show off masculinity,” Steinmann said.

Nomadic men in the north swamped their faces to avoid the evil spirits.

The interweaving of gender, geography and era elements in the exhibition raises the question: Is the headscarf considered a universal accessory? The answer is not simple. “But from the past, the head – just like the body – is always decorated or covered in all cultures,” says Steinmann.

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